J Gene Med. 2006 Apr;8(4):488-97.
Orson FM1, Kinsey BM, Densmore CL, Nguyen T, Wu Y, Mbawuike IN, Wyde PR.
Conventional vaccine development for newly emerging pandemic influenza virus strains would likely take too long to prevent devastating global morbidity and mortality. If DNA vaccines can be distributed and delivered efficiently, genetic immunization could be an attractive solution to this problem, since plasmid DNA is stable, easily engineered to encode new protein antigens, and able to be quickly produced in large quantities.
We compared two novel genetic immunization methods in a mouse model of influenza to evaluate protective effects: aerosol delivery of polyethylenimine (PEI)-complexed hemagglutinin (HA)-expressing plasmid and intravenous (IV) delivery of the plasmid complexed with macroaggregated albumin/PEI. Serial serum samples were obtained for assay of neutralizing antibodies against HA. Mice were then challenged in the airway with influenza virus, and production of infectious virus in the lungs was titered.
Most mice immunized with HA plasmid alone by aerosol and all mice immunized IV developed protective immune responses, whereas none administered control plasmid were protected. Aerosol co-administration of HA plasmid with plasmids encoding the cytokines interleukin 12 (IL12) and granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) markedly increased neutralizing antibody responses, so that all aerosol immunized mice were protected from high level virus proliferation.
Cytokine-enhanced aerosol delivery of plasmid vaccines can elicit robust protective immune responses against influenza. Thus, aerosol delivery has the potential to address the need for rapid widespread immunization against new influenza virus strains, and may have applications for other infectious and toxic disease processes.
Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.